Tagged: Biomarkers

Trending With Impact: Analysis of Breast Cancer in Nigerian Women

In this trending paper published by Oncotarget in 2021, a cohort of Nigerian women were assessed for a useful biomarker in aggressive molecular subtypes of breast cancer.

The Trending with Impact series highlights Oncotarget publications attracting higher visibility among readers around the world online, in the news, and on social media—beyond normal readership levels. Look for future science news about the latest trending publications here, and at Oncotarget.com.

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Forms of cancer can vary in prevalence and aggression in different populations of people around the world. For instance, incidence rates of breast cancer (BC) have been rising in Africa over the past few decades. Research finds that Nigerian women have the highest age-standardized mortality rate of breast cancer on the African continent. This population in particular also faces disproportionately aggressive molecular subtypes of breast cancer.

“BC in Nigeria is characterized by disproportionately aggressive molecular subtypes, with exceptionally high rates of triple-negative (TN) BC [4], similar to BC in other countries in West Africa [5] and among African American women in the United States [6].”

In order to develop better treatment strategies, there is a distinct need to identify biomarkers that indicate, and even predict, these aggressive subtypes of breast cancer in Nigerian women. In 2021, a new study was conducted by researchers from Duke UniversityUniversity of LagosObafemi Awolowo University Teaching HospitalUniversity of IbadanFederal Medical Center AbeokutaUNC Gillings School of Global Public HealthOur Lady of Apostle Catholic Hospital in IbadanUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamUniversity of Kentucky, and University of Kansas Medical Center. Their trending research paper was published by Oncotarget and entitled, “Association of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and odds of breast cancer by molecular subtype: analysis of the MEND study.”

C-Reactive Protein

“C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with risk and aggressiveness for several types of cancer.”

When there is inflammation in the body, levels of the C-reactive protein (CRP) increase. This easily measurable protein can be a useful biomarker of systemic inflammation, infection, or tissue damage. Previous studies show that circulating CRP has been elevated in various types of cancers; it has also been associated with tumor prognosis. Past studies about CRP’s association in breast cancer subtypes have been notably few, and none have focused on isolating subpopulations in Africa.

“Additionally, it is worth noting that most of these past studies have been conducted in populations from the United States and Europe, among mostly White study populations, and to our knowledge, none have been conducted in populations from Africa.”

The Study

In this study, 555 Nigerian participants were assembled—of which 296 were confirmed breast cancer cases, and 259 were controls. The researchers collected clinical and reproductive characteristics of each participant, including the controls. In their first analysis, the researchers observed that newly diagnosed cases of Nigerian breast cancer were significantly more likely to have high levels of highly-sensitive CRP (hsCRP) compared to the controls. After adjusting for socio-demographic, clinical, and reproductive variables, the team still observed significant statistical significance for high levels of hsCRP associated with Nigerian BC. The findings from this cohort study also showed that high hsCRP was associated with a four-fold increased odds of BC.

“We also provide novel evidence of associations between hsCRP and BC molecular subtypes, with significant associations observed for luminal A, TN, and HER-enriched subtypes.”

Conclusion

“In conclusion, our analysis revealed a positive association between hsCRP and odds of BC, overall and for all molecular subtypes. Because CRP is an easily measured biomarker in the blood, it may represent a useful predictor of BC in the Nigerian context. We urge larger studies, preferably prospective cohort studies, among women of African descent to further characterize this association.”

Click here to read the full research paper, published by Oncotarget.

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Oncotarget is a unique platform designed to house scientific studies in a journal format that is available for anyone to read—without a paywall making access more difficult. This means information that has the potential to benefit our societies from the inside out can be shared with friends, neighbors, colleagues, and other researchers, far and wide.

For media inquiries, please contact media@impactjournals.com.

Trending With Impact: Novel Biomarkers in Bladder Cancer

Researchers from the University of Houston and UT Southwestern Medical Center conducted a study which aimed to screen urine for potentially useful protein biomarkers of bladder cancer.

3D Illustration of the urinary bladder.
3D Illustration of the urinary bladder.

The Trending with Impact series highlights Oncotarget publications attracting higher visibility among readers around the world online, in the news, and on social media—beyond normal readership levels. Look for future science news about the latest trending publications here, and at Oncotarget.com.

Listen to an audio version of this article

Bladder cancer is four times more common among men than women, and it is the sixth most common cancer diagnosis in the United States. However, researchers have found that cystoscopy—the primary method physicians use to diagnose patients with bladder cancer—is relatively invasive, expensive, and has the potential to cause urinary tract infections. 

“In contrast, urine is a noninvasive and readily available biological fluid that can be used for diagnostic tests.” 

In 2021, researchers from the University of Houston and UT Southwestern Medical Center conducted a study which aimed to screen urine for possibly useful protein biomarkers of bladder cancer. The paper they authored was published in Oncotarget’s Volume 12, Issue 8, and entitled: “Urine protein biomarkers of bladder cancer arising from 16-plex antibody-based screens.”

“Urine biomarkers could potentially provide preliminary confirmation of low-grade BC [bladder cancer] before invasive procedures are performed and facilitate surveillance of BC, as reviewed [9].”

The Study

Patients may benefit in a number of different ways by using urine as fluid in diagnostic testing for bladder cancer. Urine is readily bioavailable, non-invasive, and it can also be collected and tested on a regular basis. Patients can even use various cost-effective point-of-care diagnostic tools, including at-home testing. First, the researchers assessed whether there were useful biomarkers of bladder cancer to be found in this fluid. The team used Luminex screening to test for both low and high levels of 16 proteins utilizing highly specific antibody-protein interactions.

“In this study, Luminex screening was used to simultaneously assay the protein abundances of 16 potential biomarkers in different stages of bladder cancer and then compared to urology clinic controls.” 

ELISA validation was then used to determine which proteins were significantly elevated in bladder cancer. They found that levels of three urine proteins were capable of distinguishing between control and bladder cancer urine. One protein was also found to be capable of discriminating between high- and low-grade disease, and the successive clinical stages of bladder cancer.

“Upon ELISA validation, urine IL-1α, IL-1ra, and IL-8 were able to distinguish control urine from urine drawn from various bladder cancer stages, with IL-8 being the best discriminator.”

Conclusion

“These studies indicate that urine IL-1α, IL-1ra, and IL-8 are potential biomarkers of BC, two of which re-affirm previous reports.”

The researchers note that these newer urine biomarkers must be analyzed in larger cohorts, in specific clinical contexts, and compared to the performance of current diagnostic tools, such as the Bladderchek and UroVysion FISH assay.

“Looking forward, systematic studies in larger patient cohorts are warranted to establish the specific clinical contexts in which these markers may be used, including the following: (i) for initial diagnosis of BC, (ii) for surveillance of tumor recurrence, and/or (ii) for assessing treatment response following BCG therapy or other therapeutic modalities.”

Click here to read the full scientific study, published by Oncotarget.

Oncotarget is a unique platform designed to house scientific studies in a journal format that is available for anyone to read—without a paywall making access more difficult. This means information that has the potential to benefit our societies from the inside out can be shared with friends, neighbors, colleagues, and other researchers, far and wide.

For media inquiries, please contact media@impactjournals.com.